Feb. 26, Sermon Notes 1 Corinthians

The Run Down

1st Corinthians

I. Extra Biblical Historical Data is very helpful.
Textual Criticism: comparing all documents, manuscripts, copies, quotes from Church fathers, to try and determine the original text.
Historical Criticism: investigate the origins of the text to determine the ‘world behind the text’. Its original meaning in its original context. Reconstruct the historical situation of the author and his recipients.

Picture of a conservative Iowa community person representing a church community.
Picture of Las Vegas family… representing a church community.

II. Maps:
Paul’s journeys.
Look at Acts 17, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens, to Corinth.

III. Read Acts 18.
Map of Corinth.
Corinth and the Acropolis. Acro-High Polis-City. AcroCorinth.
The Acrocorinth, water supply from natural springs.
The Temple of Aphrodite.
Temple of Apollo.
The Isthmus, “neck”. Narrow land bridge connecting to large land masses with water front on either side. Isthmus of Corinth, 4.5 miles wide.
Peloponnese – large peninsula.
Modern Canal thru Isthmus.

IV. City Description:
Roman Hellenized colony.
Capital of Achaia Province.
500,000-800,000 population.
Important port city.
Controlled flow of goods across land… from Asia (Saronic Gulf to the East) and Italy (the Corinthian Gulf to the West).
Ships dragged across rollers the 4.5 miles.
Cult worship. 26 sacred temples of mixed religions and mystery cults.
Military naval presence.
Populated by mostly Roman Freedmen. Just above slave… able to make socioeconomic advancement.
Merchants, international trade.
Sex trade. Temple prostitutes.
Like a Modern Day New York/Las Vegas/Los Angeles.
Ancient historian coined the phrase of the city to act:
“korinthiazo” = to act like a Corinthian, to commit fornication. In present day museum, they have clay genitalia that were offered to the gods for healing of rampant venereal diseases.
Thousands of temple prostitutes at the Temple of Aphrodite on the Acrocorinth.
A double seaport, with commerce, wealth, a mixture of many peoples, connection between 2 continents, men, women, idolatry.

Isthmian games, celebrating the god Poseidon, 2nd only to Olympics.
Jewish synagogue.
Artisans and slaves made up bulk of the population.
2 Theaters, one able to house 18,000 people.

V. Diverse Church
Diverse mixture within the Church, no surprise since in a heterogeneous society. 1 Cor. 12:13, Jews, Greeks, slave, free.
Jewish Names: Aquila, Priscilla, Crispus (ruler of synagogue Acts 18:8).
Roman Latin Names: Fortunatus, Quartus, Gaius, Titius Justus (the last 2 being wealthy).
Greek Names: Stephanas, Achaicus, Erastus (2 of them wealthy).
On a paved street at the largest theater, was found a block with the inscriptions “Erastus, the aedile (commissioner of public works) bore the expense of this pavement.” May have been Paul’s fellow worker Acts 19:22 / Romans 16:23 one of those of 1 Cor. 1:26.

Acts 18:17 Sosthenes, ruler of the synagogue sometime later, beaten, co-writer with Paul from Ephesus to Corinth.
1:26 yet not many of them are of the upper social strata.
Predominantly Gentile Church.

VI. Paul’s Interactions:
He planted the church, Acts 18:1-4.
Time there: Sometime between 50-51AD, Acts. 18:11, 1 year 6mths.
We know nothing of it’s size, worship time and place, nor nature of leadership.
Time been away when he writes this: 3 years.
Multiple Correspondences with Corinth.
Letter to them. 1-2 years after leaving 1 Cor. 5:9-11. At least dealt with sexual sins and not associating with this person.
This letter is Paul’s 3rd interaction.
Delegation party from Chloe’s household. 1 Cor. 1:11
Things have gone awry.

VII. Written:
Paul left Corinth in 50-51AD, ending 2nd mission, went through Ephesus back to Jerusalem.
Wrote back in 3 years Time while on beginnings of 3rd mission as he came through Ephesus there about 3 years: 53-55AD. One of most certain dates in NT. Based off Gallio (the proconsul, governor, of the region) inscription and the ref. in Acts 18:12, placing Paul and Gallio in Corinth sometime between 50-52AD. 9 fragments of a letter from Emperor Claudius in 52AD mentions Proconsul Gallio.
From: Ephesus.

VIII. Contents:
No surprise, but a people from the Corinthian culture still had the residuals of their sin in their Local Church of Corinth.
A major conflict between the entire Church and its founder.
Confrontational letter.
About His authority. I Cor. 14:37-38.
The Gospel.
How to be Spiritual. Pneumatikos.
Church order.
Ethical living.

IX. Reports: 1:11, 5:1, 11:18.
Their letter: 7:1.
Probably brought the Corinth letter from Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus: 16:15-17.
Seems they probably have disregarded Paul’s first letter since he takes such a confrontational and clarifying approach here on the subjects probably already breached. Sexuality and idolatry and his authority.
He will have difficulty as he asserts his authority but within the servant style leadership framework. 3:5-9, 4:1-5.
Think of this varying but similar argument as he had with Judaizers in Galatia.
He has to assert his authority… over loose living… bad theology… and remain a servant.
They have 11 concerns, 10 behavioral.
Division in the church: 1:10-12, 3:4-5, 11:18-19.

2 Cor. 2:1-4 Unexpected visit, ‘again’. 1 Cor. 4:18-19. I will come to you soon.
1 Cor. 15:12 Some of you say there is no resurrection of the dead. This is internal bad teachers…. Not outsiders like in Galatia.
2 Cor. 2:4, 7:8, many tears and sorrowful letter.

1 Cor. 3:1-9 You are not spiritual… you needed milk. You still need milk. Referencing Apollos’ ministry there.

1 Cor. 9:3 This is my defense to those who would examine me. Defends his rights… 9:15 then refuses them as a servant and not to be controlled as a patron of theirs.

He will correct them on their overemphasis on their own spirituality of speaking in tongues… Chpt. 12-14.
“If anyone thinks that he is spiritual…” 3:18, 8:2, 14:37.
“Puffed up” 4:6, 18; 5:2 and “arrogant” 5:6 while gross sexual immorality is in their midst.

1. He will speak to Eschatology. The Spirit’s arrival and the beginning of the end.
2. The Gospel and the Ethical Life.
3. The Church

What would Chloe’s reps report about TMCC?
About you?

Feb. 19, Sermon Notes Amos 7-9

The Run Down
Read Amos 7-9

Amos is not a prophet nor the son of a prophet…
But God has called this common man… and He is showing him things.
He has called him to prophesy.
7:1, 4, 7, 8, 17; 8:1, 4, 9, God will show… God will reveal…. God calls them to hear… God will declare.
God is a revealing God.
Like with Pharaoh… Exodus 3:19.
19 But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless compelled by a mighty hand.[c] 20 So I will stretch out my hand and strike Egypt with all the wonders that I will do in it; after that he will let you go.
Exodus 5:2.
2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice and let Israel go? I do not know the LORD, and moreover, I will not let Israel go.”
As God reveals His will … do people respond… do they really want Him… His ways… His will… what about you.

3 Visions.
A vision of a plague of locusts is shown Amos… before the second harvest before the dry season… the King gets first harvest… he has troops to feed… and the people get the second.
Jacob (Israel). Small compared to locusts… to God’s judgment.
Amos prays…. Then God relented. (Changed His mind.)

Vision of Fire… prays again…. God relents.

Vision.. Lord standing… wall… plumb line (standard for vertical trueness).
“Amos, what do you see?”
Gods is measuring them according to His standard of vertical trueness.
Idolatry… greed… social injustice.
High places of syncretistic worship and idolatry will be destroyed.
The house of Jeroboam… the King of Israel… will fall.

Ex. 19:6… they had been called to be a holy people.
5 Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; 6 and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words that you shall speak to the people of Israel.”

And holy they were not.

So Amos is in town.
The sanctuary at Bethel had been set up by great great great granddaddy Jeroboam I… Amaziah the priest of the idolatrous northern kingdom will rebuke Amos.
He will tell the King of Amos’ dire prophesy.
Yet twisting it as conspiring.
The implication being… as with many throughout the ages… as ministers you must bless the Authoritative Ruler without question… or find yourself in trouble.
Truth didn’t matter…. Those who are unrebukeable… or think they are… usually find themselves in moral trouble.
Who is close to you that can speak into your life without candy coating everything from God into nothing but “blessings”?

Amaziah comes back to instruct Amos to flee back home and earn his keep as a prophet there… (eat your bread)…
Amos answers… I’m not a professional prophet for a living…
Herdsman and Sycamore figs, in Israel (different tree from N. America, produced figs year round… peaking July to December.
But God called me… and unlike Jonah… Amos just obeyed.

Don’t prophesy and don’t preach huh?
Your wife will have to become a prostitute at your death for subsistence…
Your sons and daughters will die… and your land will be taken….
And you will die in another nation…
And Israel will follow you from this land.

Will you say and do as man instructs you?
Or will you say and do as God instructs you?

A vision of fruit. Like figs.
The end has come.
Hyperbolic language… “I will never pass by them again.”
Worship songs will become wailing.
They will be defeated… killed… death.

Seek Him and Live… seek sin and find death.

Trample the needy and the poor.
You want the new moon to end… and the Sabbath…. So you can make more money… money money money.
Not only that… but you shrink the ephah and make more money dishonestly with false balances.
Buying the poor… and needy for costs of sandals….
You mix chaff in the wheat that you sell.

What about you… do you fudge… and cheat… are you honest as you sell… and charge… are you upfront on your costs…. ? Are you sneaky?
Would you be ashamed if others saw on the front page of the Charlotte Observer tomorrow how you make your money? Do your business?

Pride of Jacob… analogous to The Glory of Jacob… or Himself.
God will not forget these sins. We can’t hide our sin from God.
Land trembles… people mourn… rise and sink…
“And on that day”… day of judgment… day of the Lord like… one of the days…
Sun go down at noon… darken the earth… feasts into mourning…songs into lamentations…
Sackcloth… baldness…death of only son… bitter.

The days are indeed coming… your will reap what you have sown…
Famine… for the word of the Lord… but you will not find it.
Swear by the Guilt… or shame… of Samaria’s false worship… Dan was where Jeroboam I set up the golden calf for false worship and the “way of Beersheba” “god of Beersheba” both stood for the guilt and shame of false worship.

Let’s stop for a moment… and consider… some of the sinful philosophies… or lifestyles… or beliefs… that some of our ancestors/relatives… might have passed on to us.
Superstitions. Bad theologies within Christianity. Pluralistic thought. Fortune tellers. False gods. Practical false gods.
Let’s renounce those… with humility… and live for God.

This nation will fall. We will see though… that a remnant will be saved and restored. But we are not there yet.

The next vision will come to fulfillment, prophesying about 750BC and Assyrian attacks to deportations occurring from 740-720BC, within about 10 years.

He sees the Lord standing by the alter… northern temple.
He will use hyperbolic exaggeration…
Dig to Sheol… climb to heaven… top of Carmel…bottom of the sea…. Captivity w enemies….
God will repay them for their idolatry… greed… and social injustice.

The Lord will do this.
Touches the earth… melts…
The Nile… his heavenly chambers… calls for the sea…

Cush was like the farthest important territory they knew about (Ethiopia and Nubia)… that Israel not even as important as the Cushites would have shocked them.

The Philistines and Arameans (Syrians)… and the Israelites.. God is sovereign over all the people group migrations… and Israel not with a license since He brought them up out of Egypt.

God see’s there sinfulness… and they have actually more responsibility to the Covenant… and will pay for their rebellion.
Yet …
The first sign of hope in Amos…. That there will be left this remnant… not all of the house of Jacob will be destroyed.

The sifting process… the shaking… will produce a remnant… but the rebellious ones will be punished.
Shakes with a sieve… no pebble shall fall.
All the sinners of my people shall die.

In that day… the time of the Exile into Assyria… and then Babylon.
The booth… or tent… of David… not the House… implying disrepair…
God will raise it up… repair it himself.
To possess the remnant… of Edom… or Essau. Edom almost identical to Hebrew word Man…
Acts 15:12-21 this passage is quoted from the LXX that has Man and not Edom.
The idea of inclusion of the Gentiles…
“That the remnant of man may seek the Lord”.
Then this glorious time will appear.
When there is so much bounty… and produce… restored fortunes of Israel… vineyards… wine… fruit…
God will plant them in their land… and never be uprooted again.

So… in the Messiah… this is done in a “figurative” manner.. .in which Amos might not have been aware of… and then possibly depending on your Eschatology, end times view… could be still in the future for us literally.

Feb. 12, Sermon Notes Amos 5-6

The Run Down

Read Amos 5-6

Vs. 1-2 A “lamenting”…
“The virgin” Israel… symbolically… cut down in prime of life… before full experience of who God intended her to be…
On her “land”… the land… the territory God gave to them to be His light… His people… will be cut short … without full potential utilized… due to sin.
The northern kingdom will not ever rise again…. Until maybe under conquered rule in 1st century and then 1948.
Gen. 12:7; 15:5 promise to be as numerically as the stars in the sky… will not happen!

Vs. 3-4 The warriors that go out will be defeat in mass.

Seek me and live. You seek…. You trust… you obey… and you will be within the blessing of the covenant. You have faith in YHWH and let it play out in your life.

Vs. 5-6
Do not seek Bethel – Gilgal – centers now of aberrant cultic worship, syncretistic and not Jerusalem.
Beersheba actually in Judah… not sure exactly why mentioned.. but includes the south… or “cross over” even to Jerusalem, the proper place of worship.

But seek the LORD and live. Not the places of hypocritical worship… but real worship… the real LORD.

Like 6 times above.. He might break out like “fire” against the house of Joseph (representing all of Israel as the largest tribe of Ephraim.)

Vs. 7-9 You, Israel, turn pervert justice and righteousness into bitter herbs, or wormwood.

Back to the Creator God… who made the Pleiades and Orion.
Who controls the darkness and the light, and the seas… YHWH is His name.
He is sovereign over the destroyer.

Vs. 10-11 The one reproving in the gate they hate… that is the place where elders gather and decisions are made….
People abhor the good truth… they want the lies that bless without responsibility or accountability.
They feel they deserve it because they are the Elect.. are Israel.. or are Americans.

Trampling of the poor.
Tax him unfairly as you live in luxury of hewn stone.
Yet God says…. His judgment… of reaping what you have sown… will not allow you to live in them.
Nor drink of your wines.

Vs. 12-13 God knows Israel’s transgressions.
God knows.
Afflict the righteous, take bribes, turn away those in need.
Therefore: the prudent one need not waste his breath. A sarcastic tone.
You have made your bead. Everyone including the wise… silence… you’ve tried.
They will not hear it. Their hearts are hard. Their eyes are blind. Their ears are stuffed.
It is an evil time. Wow… Ouch… how far they have fallen. Yet note.. at this point their power, wealth, stability, prosperity, their religiousness hasn’t change… they are living in a false security.

Vs. 14-15 He will repeat what some have said… yet said vainly… or for mere outward appearances only… seek good and not evil. Justice.
Similarly today when politicians use Scripture… or God talk … for their own purposes…

Vs. 16-17 Amos will describe the lamenting after Judgment as God passes thu their midst.
Remember when Jesus came to bring the Holy Spirit and fire.
Matthew 3:11-12 11 “I baptize you with water for repentance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. 12 His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor and gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.”

Vs. 18-20 Jesus similarities again…
Woe’s… and the Day of the Lord. Similarities to his contemporary Joel in 1:15 and 2:1,2.
Matthew 23:13 13 “But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut the kingdom of heaven in people’s faces. For you neither enter yourselves nor allow those who would enter to go in.[a]

Why do you want this day…
Dark, not light…
From a lion into a bear…
House with biting serpent…
You think it will bring judgment on the ungodly sinners… and indeed it will..
But you define it as being “them” who have not inherited God…
Where as God defines it as those who don’t obey him as his true children…
Ungodly sinners.

Vs. 21-23
I hate your fake religion.
Feast, assemblies, burnt offerings, grain offerings, peace offerings, your worship songs,
Your whitewashed tombs.
Matthew 23:25-36 25 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. 26 You blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and the plate, that the outside also may be clean.
27 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within are full of dead people’s bones and all uncleanness. 28 So you also outwardly appear righteous to others, but within you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.
29 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets and decorate the monuments of the righteous, 30 saying, ‘If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.’ 31 Thus you witness against yourselves that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets. 32 Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 33 You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell? 34 Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will flog in your synagogues and persecute from town to town, 35 so that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah the son of Barachiah,[f] whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. 36 Truly, I say to you, all these things will come upon this generation.
Some love to study the Apocalypse “Revelation” with flow charts and time lines…
Yet mistreat their spouses…
Argue what “Tithe” means…
Drive past the poor.
And get goose bumps at worship.

Vs. 24
Wants justice to roll down like waters, ever flowing righteousness.

Vs. 25-27 Sort of questionable verse meanings… and actual texts…

Insinuating that during the 40 years… the people wondered away from God in idolatry… whether its this King and Star God of Saturn… or not… if it’s shrine and pedestal…. The point is… guilt for idolatry and the subsequent exile… diaspora.. that God had promised in the Sinai Covenant.

6:1-3 Woe at Zion. (Judah?)
Mtn of Samaria.
We all are seeking security…. Do we seek security above God’s will for our lives?

Go to Calneh (?), Hamath (Syria), Gath (Philistine)….
Sarcasm… are you better?
If you do evil like them… your ruin is secured just as well…
Election don’t cut it.
You think you put off the inevitable for what you reap… but can you escape God’s plan of judgment?

Vs. 4-6
Beds of ivory. Couches. Eating. Singing. Luxury. Drinking wine. Anoint with oils.
But don’t grieve over the coming destruction for Joseph (Ephraim) the largest tribe… symbol of Israel. Like Washington, DC or NY City of American power.

Vs. 7-8
Therefore… they will be the first exiled. This occurs.
God abhors his strong storage of food, wealth, weapons, money… yet disregard Him and goodness and do evil.

Vs. 9-10
This idea… that as the judgment plays out… they will not want to speak YHWH’s name so as not to provoke Him further.

Vs. 11-God will destroy their homes… justice to poison… righteousness to wormwood.

Vs. 13-14 Prideful boastings of victories… without the Lord…without practicing justice.. God says they will pay.
A nation will rise up and oppress you from your northern border to your southern border.

What about us…
Let’s check ourselves… repent… boast in the Lord and practice justice!

Feb. 5, Sermon Notes Amos 3-4

The Run Down

Read Amos 3-4
Review quickly setting and opening.

Chpt. 2: vs. 6-8 Israel’s crimes.
Vs. 9-11 God’s active response.
Vs. 12 Israel’s response.
Vs. 13-16 God’s punishments.

Chapter 3.
Vs. 1-2 “Hear this word that the Lord has spoken”…
Who is the Great Prophet Priest King who speaks in similar language centuries later. Jesus.
Matthew 13:18-19 “Hear then the parable of the sower: 19 When anyone hears the word of the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil one comes and snatches away what has been sown in his heart. This is what was sown along the path.

Israel… could be all encompassing for Judah too… but seems to hone in on Israel (northern kingdom).
God brought “Jacob-Israel-Hebrews” out of Egypt.
He chose them. He revealed Himself to them. They were “elected”… yet freely rebelled.
YHWH. Then the Covenant Law: Torah.
And they rebelled.
So now He will hold them to a higher standard than the nations…
And punish them for all their sins.
He will pick back up on this “punishment” but not until vs. 11.

Vs. 3-6 The answer to all the following questions in verses 3-6 is “No”.
Ultimately…. God is sovereign over all things.
And to some “Positive Preachers” dismay… even disasters can come from God.
Now not everything because we are wretched sinners… as Jesus will speak to about a tower falling on some men…. However… there is a general understanding that indeed God is in control of all… and yes…. Sometimes even the punishing.
Will we not be willing to accept the good and the bad from the Lord?
Or will we only serve Him… if He “serves” us… as we see fit?

Vs. 7-8 God is a revelatory God. He reveals His plan. By means of His prophets by His Holy Spirit.
Today… He revealed Himself fully in Jesus Christ, and via the indwelt Holy Spirit, leads us in all truth… as revealed in His Holy Scriptures.
God reveals.
Jesus said… he sets the lamp on the table…
Mark 4:21-23
21 And he said to them, “Is a lamp brought in to be put under a basket, or under a bed, and not on a stand? 22 For nothing is hidden except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret except to come to light. 23 If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.”

Vs. 9-10 God will call the nations… Ashdod (Philistines) and Egypt to metaphorically come and “see” … oppression that is the worst… and it’s by the One’s He showed favor to… in Samaria. The capital of Israel.
How embarrassing…. Revolting it must be for the Israelites to hear Amos calling their enemies to their capital to expose them and their sins.

Again… God is very upset about Oppression.
Also violence and robbery.
And this is not against other enemies… it is against their very own people.

Would you rather be the prophet Amos… or Jonah?
Called to preach doom of your own people in front of your enemies…
Called to preach repentance in your enemies lands and succeed?

So… let me ask you… in the last 5 years… what did you do… to help the needy, fight oppression, support widows/orphans/homeless… give justice to the poor?
What about in the last year?
What do you have planned for this year?
Let us not be lazy “Orthodox” Evangelicals… relaxing “ALL” the time on the porch. Let’s be active…. “Orthopraxis” Orthodox Evangelicals.

Vs. 11-12 “Therefore”…. Very important… punishment is deserved.
Does Amos know it will be Assyria. Is that revealed. He is simply sure of this judgment… which does indeed actually occur within some 20-50 years.
In OT a shepherd for the land owner could prove he didn’t steal the sheep by providing bits and pieces retrieved from the lion’s kill. Ex. 22:13.
Also the couch and bed an allusion to their comfort in wealth that will end similarly by the Lion of Zion.

Vs. 13-15
He will punish the altars of Bethel… cutting the horns off alludes to the safety one fleeing for their lives could do in the Tent… to save their.
From this period… archeologists have excavated buildings with ivory… referencing their wealth.
Summer/Winter homes.
Ok… let’s get personal… if you have multiple homes… much less one good nice one… most in the world do not. No you can’t save the world… but you can do your part. Are you doing your part? 10%… more? Tithes… Offerings? Gifts? Sacrifices?
Jesus said you shouldn’t neglect the latter but also do the first?
Matthews 23:23
23 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cumin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness. These you ought to have done, without neglecting the others.

The great houses shall come to an end, The Lord declares.

Chpt. 4
Vs. 1-3
Bashan became known for its pastures and mountains.. where cows were bred and grazed.
Amos will in a very unpolitically correct way liken the women of Samaria to these cows.

Oppressing the poor and crushing the needy.
They call to their husbands to bring them more drink.
They want more… the husbands need to work more… oppress more… to get for them.

Amos doesn’t clarify who “they” are… but “they” are indeed coming to get you and pay you back what you deserve… for you don’t delight and want the things the Lord wants… thus you will reap what you have sown.

The breaches stand for the fact that an invading army has broken through the walls… and once that happens… you are done for.

Vs. 4-5
Bethel was where the covenant stayed at one time… and at both Bethel and Gilgal worship had been established by Jeroboam I as the kingdoms had split.
And Jerusalem is in the south.
He seems to exaggerate here purposefully by saying things above what the law required… sacrifices everyday and tithes every 3 days… (supposed to be 3 years)…

“publish them”…. Brag about your giving… ha…. God hates this!

Vs. 6-11
God will do these things… and yet “they don’t return to him”…. 5 times.
Clean teeth… no food.
No rain….
Blight and mildew…
Defeat in war….
Overthrown likened to Sodom and Gomorrah… ouch.

Vs. 12-13
Prepare to meet your God.
Are you ready to meet your God?
Why wait?
I mean… why wait to get ready… why wait to moan and regret on your deathbed…
I’m 42… dang… where did 22 go?
I hear it from my grandmother…. At 89…
I know I will feel the same…. Where did it go…
So let’s get ready now… let’s build the right house…
Let’s obey and follow him today…. Not tomorrow.

God triumphs!
What else do you need?

Jan. 30, Sermon Notes Amos 1-2

The Run Down

Read Amos 1-2

Amos: Shepherd and farmer, prophesies during reigns of Uzziah in Southern Kingdom and Jeroboam II in the Northern Kingdom.
Political stability.
Nearly kingdom size as of Solomon’s.
Internal decay, idolatry, rich oppressing the poor, corruption, social injustice.
Contemporaries were Hosea (Israel and Judah) and Joel (Judah).

Syncretistic worship was happening… mixing Yahweh with idols.
Pagan high places existed on hills and mountaintops.
Amos will denounce their social concern very strongly.

Cult of Baal… a fertility cult,… with temple prostitutes… remember Hosea.

Amos is the author, lived and worked in Tekoa, 10 miles south of Jerusalem, mountains, east arid, west pastures, shepherd, also attended sycamore trees, and called to be a prophet.

Prophetic around 760BC.
Strong wilderness country boy. Shaped by hard work, rugged hills, simple living.
Not from a prophetic community (7:14).

Vs. 1 The words of Amos during his northern ministry.
Shepherd: breeder and supplier of sheep, cattle too.
Personally cared for the flocks.

“saw”…. Not necessarily all visual… but also mental apprehension.

Israel can mean the entirety of both kingdoms… probably means just the northern one.

There will come 7 denunciations of nations around Israel.. including Judah… but prophesy is for northern Israel.

Vs. 2 YHWH roars from Zion.
Roars or Thunders.
Presage a mighty act of God… usually in natural phenomena.
A withering draught here on green hills of Mt. Carmel, which is in the northern kingdom on the Mediterranean Sea 24 miles long towards the southeast.

This parallels Amos prophetic mission from Jerusalem to Israel. Not pleasant for the northern kingdom since they had God “with them” in the North.

Vs. 3-5
Syria (Aram, the Arameans)…. Capital city was Damascus. Constant hostilities existed between Israel and Syria. Many battles recorded in 1 Kings.
The numerical motif is frequently used… in Job, in Proverbs, Eccles, and Micah.

They had threshed Gilead with iron sledges.
Gilead, east of the Jordan River,…. On the frontier of Israel… lush forests… frequent raids by others.
Referred to incident probably in 2 Kings 13:1-9 during the reign of Jehoahaz army made like “dust at the threshing time”.
Threshing sledge… 2 wood boards together with iron spikes.

“Fire” is metaphorical. He uses that in the other judgments also, except on Israel.
The Fire = judgment of God.

Hazael rule Syria about 841-806BC. 2 Kings 8:12-13.

Ben-Hadad. “son of Hadad”, an ancient storm god. Is the name of 3 Syrian kings.
A family dynasty name.
Each of these kings warred with Israel, taking lands and lives.

I will break the “gate-gar” of Damascus.
Literally… giant wooden doors would have a bar of iron or bronze to hold it.
Once the bars are broken… the city is all but undone…

The “Valley of Aven”. Not identified. Valley of Evil.
“Beth Eden”. Not identified. House of delight. Maybe Damascus.
“Kir” is difficult to id. Place of the origin of Syria, 9:7. Happens when Assyria took people of Damascus captive back to Kir, 2 Kings 16:9.

Vs. 6-8
Now to the Philistines. Gaza.
Regular enemies of Israel.
Constantly sending raiding parties to Israel.
Pentapolis. 5 main cities. All ruled by separate city rulers.
Asdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza. 4 of the 5 are mentioned here.
Gath had been beaten by Sargon in 711 BC… and Uzziah in 750ish 2 Chron. 26:6, and probably never fully recovered by Amos’ prophesy. In the Bible it’s never listed again as one of the main Cities after Amos.

Denounced for their enslavement of Israel, and selling them to Edom.

Vs. 9-10
Moving closer and closer to Israel. Started at Damascus. Then to Gaza. Now to the city of Phoenicia.
Crime: enslaving whole communities.
Generally had a historically good relationship with Israel… Solomon had made a pact with Hiram King of Tyre 1 Kings 5:12, 9:13 “brother”).

Vs. 11-12
Mountainous region southeast at the southern tip of the Dead Sea. On the Transjordon… of 3 Kingdoms there… with Ammon and Moab.
Edom another name for Esau.
Jacob and Esau. His descendants.
Where Petra is. An ancient Edomite City.
In wilderness journey with Moses in the Exodus.. they sought passage through Edom… they said no… Numb. 20:14-21.
They became enemies of Saul, David.
Teman and Bozrah were cities of Edom to be destroyed.
James 4:11, 1 John 2:9… love your brother.

Vs. 13-15
Ammon northeast of the Dead Sea and north of Moab.
Sought to increase their territory. Largely desert.
Invaded Israel numerous times… Judges 10:6-9.
Fought Saul and David.
Gen. 19:30-38. Ammonites and Moabites from incestual relationship of Lot with 2 daughters.
Ripped open preg women of Gilead.

Rabbah was the capital city of Ammon. Today… it’s Amman.
The king would go into exile with his officials.
Ammon ended after king Nebuchadnezzar sacked it… later to be overtaken by Arab invaders.

Chapter 2

Vs. 1-3
Moab to the east of the Dead Sea. Ammon to the north… Edom to the south.
Hebrews not allowed to use king’s highway… Judg. 11:17. Thus excluded from the assembly of Israel Deut. 23:3-4.
King of Moab engaged Balaam to curse the Hebrews Numb. 22:4-6.
Joined with others to attach Israel.
Burned King of Edom’s bones. Not specifically mentioned in the OT… but probably during pact of Israel, Edom, Judah. To suppress Moabites.
Kerioth a major city of Moab would be destroyed.
Of note here… is the only punishment for crimes against others than Israel.

Vs. 4-5
From the Pagan nations… now to God’s covenant people.
Israel would have welcomed hearing this… for the hostilities that existed after the splitting of the kingdoms…. And their religious pride having the temple.
Rejected the law of God. They had the light. The other nations had the moral compass they were held accountable to.
Judah had the testimony of YHWH in the covenant.
They knew better.
“Led astray”… by false gods… to wander around… walked after them… like straying animals or intoxicated people.
This punishment comes when the Babylonians destroy the temple in 100 years.

Vs. 6-16
He has circled around from the Pagans… to Judah… and now for Israel.
This won’t be received quite as well.
Vs. 6 The powerful making more even off small things like sandals as they oppressed the ‘righteous’ or ‘needy’ or ‘innocent’. Meaning the weak and poor.
Vs. 7 Man and father have intimate relations with same woman. Maybe temple prostitution here. Maybe breaking laws of incest.
Vs. 8 You could offer garment as collateral… but must give back at night.
They weren’t obeying. Drinking in the house of God.

Vs. 9 Amorites used for the Canaanites in the land before conquering.
Vs. 10 God gracious lead them.
Vs. 11 Graciously God raised and spoke to them through Prophets and Nazirites Numbers 6:1-12.

Vs. 12 Nazirites don’t drink alcohol, cut hair, or touch dead bodies.
The people reject God’s godly influence from these 2 parties.
Vs. 13-16 Punishment, crushed by cart (agricultural cart), swift runner, strong man, and a warrior.
Israel’s inability to escape the judgment of God.
God’s judgment is sure.